Carbon Management and Emissions Trading
The nature and scope of the carbon market is changing rapidly as the cost of carbon emissions is gradually integrated into the world economy through a variety of policies in different regions. The period to 2020 will see the expansion of carbon pricing in a wider international compliance regime, the strengthening and convergence of policies on renewable energy, energy efficiency, technology transfer and energy security and the beginning of mandatory de-carbonization regimes in major economies like the USA and China. The twin drivers of energy demand and climate change will see massive investment in clean energy infrastructure worldwide, up to $45 trillion as estimated by the International Energy Agency.
We hope through many of the resources provided in the segment that you can build a suitable business case and action plan for how your organisation / country / subnational government will tackle the challenges and opportunities ahead as we all transition to a low carbon economy.

Carbon and Carbon Trading Glossary The carbon sector is full of jargon.  So here’s a few glossaries to help decipher it all. Carbon Glossary Carbon Trading Glossary

2012 and 2013 UK Guardian Sustainable Business Awards
The Guardian Sustainable Business in the UK has some great case studies from their annual Sustainable Business Awards. Check out winners in Carbon from 2012 and 2013
Securing Rights, Combating Climate Change – How Strengthening Community Forest Rights Mitigates Climate Change
World Resources Institute Global 2014
Securing Rights, Combating Climate Change analyzes the growing body of evidence linking community forest rights with healthier forests and lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. This report makes a strong case for strengthening the rights of indigenous and local communities over their forests as a policy tool for mitigating climate change.
Moving Below Zero
The climate Institute Market: Global, Year: 2014
Physics tells us that if we are to avoid very dangerous global warming of 2°C or more above pre-industrial levels, Australia and other countries need not only zero carbon technologies like solar and wind but also to go further, and employ carbon removal technologies Read more…
2013 State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets
Ecosystems Marketplace. Market: Global, Year: 2013
This report shows in a global economy where policy solutions in support of these markets are slow to be implemented, many private companies are voluntarily internalizing the price of carbon in their business activities. 90% of offset volumes were contracted by the private sector – where corporate social responsibility and industry leadership were primary motivations for offset purchases. In general, voluntary demand for carbon offsetting grew 6% in 2012, and buyers committed more than $522 million to offset 101 million metric tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions paying a volume-weighted average price of $5.9/tonne – slightly down from 2011’s $6.2/tonne, but significantly higher than the price for offsets under the UN’s Clean Development Mechanism (less than $1/tonne) and under the EU ETS price, which last traded at 4.35 Euros.


How Australia’s carbon price is working – one year on
Clean Energy Future. Market: Australia,Year: 2013
It is a year since the Australian Government introduced carbon pricing to help tackle climate change. The carbon price, introduced on 1 July 2012, is working in tandem with a comprehensive set of policies under the Government’s Clean Energy Future plan. A year on this report provides the evidence that the policies are doing what they were designed to do – reducing carbon pollution, driving investment in clean and renewable energy, and transforming Australia’s economy to be more competitive as the world tackles climate change.


Sustainable Australia Report 2013
The National Sustainability Council. Market: Australia,Year: 2013
The National Sustainability Council was established by the Australian Government in October 2012 as an independent, expert body to provide advice on sustainability issues. It reports to the Minister for Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. It’s key role is to deliver a public report against the sustainability indicators for Australia every two years.
This, its first report was published in May 2013}1 and provides a picture of Australia – what we look like and who we are. It tells the story of how we have changed as a nation over the last 30 years. We have made great progress in many areas. Australians are living longer, our health and levels of educational attainment have improved. We have benefited from a strong economy, with low unemployment and increasing incomes. However, inequality has increased and the health of our natural environment has continued to decline in some key areas.
The report provides an evidence base for decision-making and planning about the future. It highlights a number of trends in Australia and the world that are set to have a significant impact on the next generation of Australians. It shows we need to plan for an ageing population, rising health costs, growing cities and changes in traditional work and family roles.
Implementing the Carbon Farming Initiative: A Guide for Business.
Carbon Market Institute. Market: Australia, Year: 2012
This 170 page guide is a comprehensive tool designed to assist those interested in the CFI to understand and assess opportunities in this newly established market. CMI commissioned international legal practice Norton Rose Australia and expert advisory and project development company RAMP Carbon to co-author the guide under the CMI’s program of research. The result of the collaboration is a unique guide which leverages a wide range of carbon market expertise. Note – this is not a free resource. There is a nominal charge. Please refer to:
Back to the Future- State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2011
Ecosystem Marketplace & Bloomberg New Energy Finance. Market: US, Year: 2011
This report offers insights from a larger proportion of the world’s carbon offset suppliers representing more business and project locations than ever before. Back to the Future- State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2011
Back to the Future- State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2011 Executive Summary
Ecosystem Marketplace & Bloomberg New Energy Finance. Market: US, Year: 2011
This executive summary corresponds to the report, “Back to the Future State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2011” which offering insights from a larger proportion of the world’s carbon offset suppliers representing more business and project locations than ever before. Back to the Future- State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2011 Executive Summary
Bridging the greenhouse-gas emissions gap.
UNEP. Market: Global, Year: 2011
Produced to aid discussions at the Durban UNFCCC COP, this report provides twenty-one coherent major initiatives could together stimulate sufficient reductions by 2020 to bridge the global greenhouse-gas emissions gap.
State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2011
Carbon Finance. Market: US, Year: 2011
The report still provides an overview of the size and reach of the carbon markets, as well as the evolution of the Kyoto flexibility mechanisms, and offers potential supply/demand scenarios for coming years. It also provides a more in-depth analytical discussion of the regulation and policy issues that will guide future carbon market development.
Business Briefing Series
PricewaterhouseCoopers & Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia. Market: Australia, Year: 2010
The paper explains the new business landscape of a low carbon economy and examines the key impacts on the introduction of a proposed Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS).
Building Bridges- State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2010
Ecosystem Marketplace & Bloomberg New Energy Finance. Market: US, Year: 2010
This fourth annual “State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets” report is designed to give a market-wide perspective on trading volumes, credit prices, project types, locations, and the motivations of buyers in this market.
Building Bridges- State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2010 Executive Summary
Ecosystem Marketplace & Bloomberg New Energy Finance. Market: US, Year: 2010
This is the executive summary corresponds to the report, “Building Bridges- State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2010”.
National Carbon Offset Standard
Department of Climate Change. Market: Australia, Year: 2010
The Standard provides guidance to businesses who wish to make their organization carbon neutral or develop carbon neutral products in a way that achieves emissions reductions, through the purchase and retirement of carbon offsets that are beyond those achieved by the CPRS and achievement of Australia’s national emissions reduction targets.
Low Carbon Leaders – Transformative Solutions for a Low-Carbon Future
Market: Global, Year: 2010
Presents transformative solutions that businesses around the world are implementing to save energy, reduce emissions and ensure a low-carbon future. LOW_CARBON_LEADERS_PROJECT.pdf
Low Carbon Growth Plan for Australia
Market: Australia, Year: 2010
This report sets out Australia?s emissions reduction opportunities in cost order and by sector, the challenges faced in capturing them, and actions required to succeed. It also illustrates the significant opportunities available to business. ClimateWorks Australia hopes this will be useful to prompt and guide the actions required from government, business and consumers to achieve the emissions reduction potential for Australia at the lowest possible cost.
Summary Report Full Version Report
IETA Market Sentiment Survey
Market: Global, Year: 2010
The International Emissions Trading Association (IETA) GHG Market Sentiment Survey, now in its fourth year and again conducted by PwC, provides an important barometer of market opinion in what is expected to be a pivotal year in the policy response to climate change. IETA_market_sentiment_survey.pdf
PwC Summary Report for Policymakers
Market: Global, Year: 2009
Business needs to play a critical role in financing, developing and deploying solutions to climate change and Government needs to put the right incentives and regulation in place to make low carbon investments commercially viable. That was the overwhelming conclusion of over 550 business leaders from over 40 countries attending the World Business Summit on climate change in Copenhagen prior to the UN climate negotiations in December. summary_report_for_policymakers.pdf
Introduction to Carbon Management
Market: Global, Year: 2009
This paper looks at an approach to delivering long-term financially sustainable carbon footprint reduction for a company and how it is supported through the adoption of appropriate technology over time. A brief look at the Carbon Management Maturity Model highlights a strategy that allows a company to deal with current challenges, alongside finding the optimal balance between financial performance and footprint reduction. This is then linked to Carbon Visibility, which allows a company to move away from simple manual reporting towards carbon conscious thinking being embedded in corporate behaviour. introduction_to_carbon_management.pdf
Tackling Emissions Growth: The role of markets and government regulation
Market: Global, Year: 2009
Co-authored by PwC with Duke Energy, DONG Energy and CLSA, the paper is designed to send a strong message from the business community to the 2009 UN Climate Change conference on how to remove barriers and create incentives for the implementation of new solutions in a post-Kyoto framework, reinforcing the need for urgent action to tackle emissions growth. Tackling_emissions_growth_role_of_markets.pdf
A hybrid carbon tax and trading scheme could stimulate more private sector investment to tackle climate change
Market: Global, Year: 2009
A hybrid carbon tax and trading scheme would provide the certainty of a minimum carbon price as well as a safety valve to limit overall costs, according to new analysis by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP. Carbon_taxes_and_trading_-_final_-_March_2009.pdf
The World Bank – State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2009
Market: Global, Year: 2009
Press Release with overview
Full Report 2009
2008 Full Report
 State of Voluntary Carbon Markets Report 2009
Market: Global, Year: 2009
2009 Full Report
The forest carbon offsetting survey 2009
Market: Global, Year: 2009
In 2008, many carbon buyers decided to buy forest offsets for the first time. This new market activity follows a growing recognition that forests must be a major part of the solution to climate change and that well designed and well run forest projects can lessen climate change while providing social and environmental benefits that no other offset technology can. This report is an analysis of the motivations and preferences of the early movers in this rapidly growing field.
2009 Carbon Disclosure Project Global 500 Report
Market: Global, Year 2009
The Carbon Disclosure Project is an independent not-for-profit organization holding the largest database of primary corporate climate change information in the world. Thousands of organizations from across the world’s major economies measure and disclose their greenhouse gas emissions and climate change strategies through CDP.
The 2009 Report provides details of the Global 500 with investment of US$55 trillion.
Carbon Tax drives Renewable Energy
Market: Global, Year: 2009
A carbon tax was introduced in both Sweden and Denmark in 1991. Other countries have followed – most recently France. Now 19 years later it is interesting to see how the Swedes see the pros and cons of this relatively simple option of a carbon tax on fossil fuels. According to the Swedes it is almost all pros.
Here the Swedish Bioenergy Association outline how the tax has worked and the way it has directed the development of renewable energy to the stage that now about 46% of Sweden’s total energy is from renewables. When hydro-electricity is removed, about 31% of the total is from biomass (including peat and MSW) and 2% is from wind.
Biomass in Sweden now provides more primary energy (electricity, heat and transport fuels combined) than any other source including oil, nuclear or hydro. Interestingly this has been accompanied by a steady rise in GDP, and a flatlining of domestic and industrial GHG emissions since 1990.
For more information refer
The impact of industry assistance measures under the CPRS – Scheme deferral update
Market: Australia, Year: 2009
In May 2009 the Australian government announced a one year delay in the implementation of its planned Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS), along with changes that include a phased start and increases in industry assistance, designed to take account of pressures on Australian industry created by the global recession. This brief note provides analysis of the changes to industry assistance. RiskMetrics_CPRS_Industry_Assistance_May09.pdf
May Day Carbon UK report – a survey on the 2010 Carbon Reduction Commitment (CRC)
Market: UK, Year: 2009
Business in the Community commissioned this research to find out how prepared the UK’s businesses really are for climate change, and for the impending regulations that the Carbon Reduction Commitment (CRC) legislation will bring in April 2010. May_Day_Carbon_UK_report_FINAL_300409.pdf
Counting the Cost of Carbon – Applying practical accounting principles for product carbon footprints
Market: Global, Year: 2008
This document describes the concepts of traditional life cycle assessments and its pros and cons. It will also discuss the new developed carbon allocation process and the benefits of this approach. 2008_counting_the_cost_of_carbon.pdf
Climate Disclosure Standards Board (CDSB) – CDSB Reporting Framework
Market: Global, Year: 2008
This document is designed to provide a common reporting framework (“the Framework”) for climate change-related disclosure to be used by companies in compiling their mainstream reports. Guidelines for reporting framework are cleared stated.CDSB-framework2.pdf
A day in a low carbon life – What might it be like to lead a business in 2012?
Market: UK, Year: 2008
This paper describes a day in the life of a fictional Chief Executive Officer, preparing to face market analysts in 2012. The intention is to explore the challenges business leaders might face doing business in a low carbon economy. The authors use scenarios to describe the life but it should not be read as a prediction of future business conditions, and any resemblance to actual people or companies is unintentional. A_day_in_a_low_carbon_life_in_2012.pdf
Sixth Annual Global Forum of the Carbon Disclosure Project
Market: Global, Year: 2008
Highlights of the launch can be seen here with full transcript of the speeches here.
Australia’s National Greenhouse Accounts
Market: Australia, Year: 2008
Australia’s National Greenhouse Accounts are a comprehensive set of reports outlining Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions – as a nation, by state, and by industry. The Accounts comprise: 1) National Greenhouse Gas Inventory 2006; 2)National Inventory by Economic Sector 2006; 3)State and Territory Greenhouse Gas Inventories 2006; 4)National Inventory Report 2006 – Australia’s official submission to the UNFCCC; and 5)The Australian Government’s Initial Report under the Kyoto Protocol – 2008. Australias_National_Greenhouse_Accounts_-_Home_Page.mht
Cutting carbon, not economic growth: Germany’s path
Market: Germany, Year: 2008
The government of Germany, one of the world’s largest economies, has set an ambitious goal for reducing greenhouse gas emissions: as of 2020, it wants to cut them by up to 40 percent of their level in 1990, the base year under the Kyoto Protocol. This study of the technological opportunities to abate the country’s carbon emissions suggests that achieving a 30 percent target, while challenging, would neither curb economic growth nor require lifestyle changes or lower levels of comfort. But hitting targets higher than that could be very costly and politically contentious. Cutting_Carbon_not_Economic_Growth.pdf
Australia’s climate change challenge
Market: Australia, Year: 2008
This draft report describes the methodology that the Garnaut Climate Change Review is applying to evaluation of the costs and benefits of climate change mitigation; to the application of the science of climate change to Australia; to the international context of Australian mitigation; and to Australian mitigation policy. While the draft report does not present the results of modelling the costs and benefits of climate change, it does provide the first public exposure of aspects of the Garnaut-Treasury and Garnaut Review approach to the modelling. Garnaut_Draft_Report__Exec_Summary_4_July_2008.pdf
Green Carbon – The role of natural forests in carbon storage
Market: Australia, Year: 2008
This report presents a summary of results from case studies in the eucalypt forests of south-eastern Australia. We use these results to frame a discussion of REDD, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation, and we make policy recommendations to help promote a scientific understanding of the role of natural forests in the global carbon cycle and in solving the climate change problem. Green_Carbon.pdf
Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme – Green Paper
Market: Australia, Year: 2008
The green paper outlines the Australian Government’s approach to the design of a national emissions trading scheme – Australia’s Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme. The paper identifies the key design decisions that are required, discusses alternative approaches to dealing with the key questions to be resolved, and indicates preferences among options.
IBM – Making Advances in Carbon Management
Market: UK, Year: 2008
This report will serve as an important guide to any company wishing to improve its understanding of what’s involved in developing and implementing a successful carbon management strategy. From setting measurement criteria, to gaining buy-in from senior and board-level management, to a highly informative best practice matrix, it will help guide you through the “do’s” and “don’ts” of carbon management. Whatever your company’s position on the path to carbon management, by sharing best practice from some of the leaders in this field, this report will provide valuable insight to the carbon leaders, as much as to the carbon novices. IBM_Carbon_Management_study_June081.pdf
IBM – Mastering carbon management
Market: US, Year: 2008
This is a document about how to balance trade-offs to optimize supply chain efficiencies. Much of the opportunity to address CO2 emissions rests on the supply chain, compelling companies to look for new approaches to managing carbon effectively – from sourcing and production, to distribution and product afterlife. The trade-offs in the supply chain are no longer just about cost, service and quality – but cost, service, quality and carbon. By incorporating carbon reduction into their overall SCM strategy, companies can help reduce their environmental emissions footprint, strengthen their brand image and develop competitive advantage. IBM_Mastering_Carbon_Mgt.pdf
An Australian Cost Curve for Greenhouse Gas Reduction
Market: Australia, Year: 2008
Australia’s recent ratification of the Kyoto Protocol forms a binding commitment to stabilise greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at 108 percent of 1990 levels by 2012. This report addresses the questions of ‘how much, when, and at what cost?’ regarding the ratification and the question of how short-, mid- and long-range target can be met while limiting the impact on the Australian economy. McKinseygreenhouse.pdf
The Urgency for Carbon Management
Market: Australia, Year: 2008
This document identifies the key business requirements in implementing carbon management for the Australian National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting (NGER) Act 2007 – set to come into effect July 1, 2008. It also explains why carbon management is a critical undertaking for businesses. Review_of_white_paper_by_Carbon_View.pdf
The Australian Government’s Initial Report under the Kyoto Protocol
Market: Australia, Year: 2008
This report is a submission of the Australian Government to the secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to facilitate the calculation of the assigned amount pursuant to Article 3, paragraphs 7 and 8, and to demonstrate its capacity to account for its emissions and assigned amount for the first commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol.unfccc-report.pdf
European Expert Views on Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)
Market: Europe, Year: 2008
Beginning 22 August 2008, survey invitations were sent to 2,808 European climate and energy experts in academic, voluntary, and consulting organizations, as well as government and the private sector. This stakeholder opinion research project 1) gauges levels of awareness of, as well as support for or opposition to, CCS among key stakeholders in Brussels and individual European states; 2) determines what arguments most increase support for or opposition to CCS; 3) demonstrates to policy makers that initial work is underway that will support acceptance of CCS; 4) provides decision makers with insight that will enable them to move forward with confidence. GS_CCS_Survey_Report_2008.pdf
How do we show leadership and survive in a carbon restricted world?
Australia’s Inaugural CSR Summit. Market Australia, Year: 2007
Tim Castree – CEO, Leo Burnett.
Carol Battle – Partnership Manager Climate Positive.
Damien Wigley – Director, Ecovantage.
In this segment we take a look at how to go Carbon Neutral (using the CSR Summit as an example). We also take a look at the effects from events such as Earth Hour and how you can influence change and take control of your environmental footprint moving forward.
How do we show leadership and survive in a carbon restricted world?


Now that climate change is recognised as a major risk to business, how do you elevate from belief to action? In this panel discussion, we will talk about the challenges and benefits of improved environmental management including bio-remediation, carbon trading, systemic change etc.
Environment and community.
Australia’s Inaugural CSR Summit Market Australia. Year: 2007
Professor Dean Forbes – Deputy Vice-Chancellor (International), Flinders University.
Peter David – Vice President Sales, EC3 Global.
Louise Hicks – Head of Planning, Environment and Local Government Law Practice DLA Phillips Fox.
Professor Dean Forbes
Peter David
Louise Hicks
Fifth Annual Global Forum of the Carbon Disclosure Project
Market: US, Year: 2007
Address by President Bill Clinton
Walking the Talk on Energy and Climate
Market: Global, Year: 2007
The world has reached an unsustainable trend in greenhouse gas emissions, so we now need to take action to decarbonize as much as possible the world’s energy mix. Resources are to be used more efficiently at the same time as we meet growing energy needs. For that to happen one key element is to collectively define a global, long-term and quantifiable pathway for annual greenhouse gas emissions. This shared diagnosis could then be a point of reference for the development of national energy and climate policies. ec-walking_the_talk_on_enegy_and_carbon.pdf
Ready for take-off? The inclusion of aircraft operators in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme
Market: Global, Year: 2007
This PwC report examines some of the challenges such a scheme will pose aircraft operators and takes a look at the industry’s present readiness to meet the resultant monitoring and reporting obligations and strategic and operational challenges, based on a survey among leading aircraft operators executed in the summer of 2007.
Carbon Value – Robust carbon management
Market: Australia, Year: 2007
This paper, released by PricewaterhouseCoopers, is a framework to protect and enhance shareholder value in response to climate change. The climate change already represents a material risk to many companies – and not just major emitters of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. In turn, businesses that do not respond robustly to these demands may be putting shareholder value at risk, and could see the market place a discount on their share price.pwccarbonvaluereport.pdf
Assessing emissions trading schemes
Market: Australia, Year: 2007
The design of an emissions trading scheme will determine whether or not it puts Australia on track to avoiding dangerous climate change. The table in the article assesses the proposal from the Australian state governments and the PM’s task group recommendations against the measures ACF (Australian Conservation Foundation) considers are needed to protect our future climate. Assessing_Emissions_trading_schemes.pdf
Climate Change Impacts on Australia and the Benefits of Early Action to Reduce Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Market: Australia, Year: 2006
Australia is one of the many global regions experiencing significant climate change as a result of global emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from human activities. This technical report outlines the likely impacts on Australia of climate change, and the benefits of global emissions reductions. CSIRO_Business_case_for_early_acton_on_climate_change.pdf
A Survey of Sustainability Experts and in-Depth Interviews with Climate Change Solution Providers
Market: Global, Year: 2006
This preliminary research aims to map the channels of influence affecting the development, emergence, and adoption of climate change solutions, acquire informed input into the structure of the Climate Forum Panel, test question concepts, validate influence maps, decide on future content, and emphasize the importance of, and current need for the Climate Forum. GS_Climate_Forum_Report.pdf
Preparing for a low-carbon future
Market: Global, year: 2004
This is the Quarterly from McKinsey. Different methods to build a low carbon economy are discussed, such as managing products emissions, track and report financial risks, help shape regulations, etc.
Engaging the private sector in the Clean Development Mechanism
Market: Global, Year: 2004
Economic development in industrialized countries has been historically based on energy derived from fossil fuels. Considering that major future energy demand is expected from developing countries, and were they to replicate this development trend, ensuing carbon emissions would be substantial. The challenge facing us today is: how can this trend be altered in such a way that development needs and energy demands are met without threatening the earth’s climate? The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol lies at the heart of this challenge – designed properly, it can propel a shift toward lower carbon futures whilst engaging both the North and the South.
Life Cycle Analysis Background and Tools
CSIRO. Market: Australia
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a method of analysing the environmental impacts of a process, product or activity along its life cycle, for example from ?the cradle to the grave’.The objective of most LCA studies is to help food producers, manufacturers, mining companies and product producers examine inputs (such as resources, materials and electricity) and outputs (such as waste) and the impacts of these to improve efficiencies and identify where better environmental performance can be achieved.The CSIRO produce a good background to LCA and a Step by Step Approach.